Scutellaria lateriflora, “Virginian skullcap” or “Mad dog skullcap” in English, belongs to the Lamiaceae botanical family. Native to North America, it is a herb growing to 0.6 m in alluvial thickets, meadows and swampy woods.
The leaves have been traditionally used by Native Americans and Europeans as a nerve tonic, sedative and anticonvulsant, in the treatment of epilepsy, insomnia, anxiety, delirium tremens, withdrawal from barbiturates and tranquillizers, and neuralgia. It has also been used to promote suppressed menstruation, relieve breast pain and encourage expulsion of the placenta.
Among the main constituents of the leaves are essential oil, diterpenoids, amino acids and flavonoids, with a great variation of the major biomarkers baicalein, baicalin, wogonin and wogonoside. Also, two flavone: scutellarein and ikonnikoside I.