Citrus limon, “Lemon” in English and “Citron” in French, belongs to the Rutaceae botanical family.
It is a small tree, originally cultivated in Mediterranean regions since the 15th century, especially southern Italy and Spain.
A rich source of vitamin C, the juice, peel and oil of the fruit as well as lemon leaves are used for a wide variety of culinary preparations all over the world. Dried lemon peels are mainly used as a stomachic medicine, but also to treat phlebitis, and as a hypotensor.
The main constituents of its essential oil (0.2 to 0.6%) are limonene, citral, many flavonoids, citric acid and many other plant acids, coumarin derivatives (citropten) and abundant pectins.