Pinus mugo, “Bog pine” or “Creeping pine” in English and “Pin mugo” or “Pin couché” in French, belongs to the Pinaceae botanical family.
Native to Europe, it is a tree growing to 4.5 m in mountainous areas. It is cultivated for its wood, as an ornamental plant, and its young shoots and cones are used to make liqueurs and syrups.
The turpentine obtained from its resin is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is used for kidney and bladder complaints, rheumatic affections, coughs, colds and influenza. Externally, it is used for a variety of skin problems. The apical branches are antiasthmatic, balsamic, cardiotonic and expectorant.
The main constituents of its essential oil (needles, twigs and cones) are δ-3-carene, α-pinene, β-pinene and β-phellandrene.