Fagopyrum esculentum, “Buckwheat” in English and “Sarrasin” in French, belongs to the Polygonaceae botanical family. Probably native to China, it is a herb that grows to 1 m.
Buckwheat has historically been used as feed for animals and its flour has a culinary use in many countries; it is also grown as a cover crop and as forage for honey bees.
The leaves and shoots of flowering plants are acrid, astringent and vasodilator. They are used internally in the treatment of high blood pressure, gout, varicose veins, chilblains, radiation damage etc. Buckwheat possesses antitumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anti-diabetic activities.
Among its main constituents are flavonoids (taxifolin) and phenolics (considered as the most active), fagopyritols, triterpenoids, steroids and fatty acids. Notably, fagopyrin, rutin, and chlorogenic acid.