PANAX SPECIES SPECIFIC MARKERS

Ginsenosides are a class of steroid glycosides and triterpene saponins, which are found almost exclusively in the plant genus Panax (ginseng), which has a long history of use in traditional medicine that has led to the study of pharmacological effects of ginseng compounds. Ginsenosides can be isolated from various parts of the plant, though typically from the roots. P. notoginseng (Tienchi ginseng), P. ginseng (Asian ginseng), P. quinquefolius (American ginseng) – the most common species on the market - contain dammarane -type ginsenosides as major constituents. Dammarane-type ginsenosides includes 2 classifications depending on their triterpenic aglycone :

20(S)-protopanaxadiols (PPD) : Ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, …

20(S)-protopanaxatriols (PPT) : Ginsenosides Re, Rf, Rg1, Rg2, …

Beside these major types of ginsenoside, other minor type of triterpene saponines can be found, pending on the species: octollilol, oleanane, ….

HPTLC GinsenosidesThe chemical profiles of Panax species are distinct. Comparison of ginsenosides profile allows the authentication of plant specimen or plant based products: presence/absence/ratio of components can be very specific. More specifically :

  - Ginsenoside Rf is characteristic from Asian ginseng,
  - Pseudoginsenoside F11 (an octolillol-type) is specific to American ginseng,
  - Ginsenosides Rc and Rb2 are absent from Notoginseng, which contains specifically Notoginsenoside R1

Also cultivation and processing conditions can impact such profile. Many studies and reviews have been published to this respect, usually based on HP-TLC or HPLC fingerprint of ginsenosides, like in the beside chart (P.S. Xie and coll. / J. Chromatogr. A 1112 (2006) p. 171-180). For a review see also: C.S.Yuan and coll. / Phytochemistry 72 (201) p. 689-699

 

Extrasynthese offer a complete set of Ginsenoside analytical standards, for any type of authentication or titration of ginseng specimen or ginseng based products, according to well established monographias like USP, EP, AHP...

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